✔ Bibliographie :
BLAEU (Guillaume) – Institution astronomique de l'usage des globes et sphères, céleste et terrestre – Edition de 1642.
BOULANGER – Traité de la sphère du Monde – Edition de 1648.
BRAHE (Tycho) – Mécanique de l'Astronomie rénovée – traduit par Jean Peyroux – Editions Bergeret Bordeaux 1978.
DES BORDES (Guillaume) – La Sphère de Jean de Sacrobosco – Paris 1607.
ENCYCLOPEDIE METHODIQUE – édition Panckoucke – Paris 1784.
FOCARD (Jacques) – Paraphrase de l'astrolabe – Edition de 1546.
GEMINOS DE RHODES – Introduction aux Phénomènes – Traduit par G. Aujac – Belles lettres 1975.
GEMMA FRISIUS (1508-1555) – Usus annuli astronomici – A la suite de la Cosmographie de Pierre Apian. Edition en "françois" de 1544.
LALANDE (Jérôme) – Abrégé d'Astronomie – Edition de1775.
PHILOPON (Jean) – Traité de l'astrolabe – Présenté par A. P. Segonds – Paris 1981.
PLATON – Timée – Flammarion 1992.
PTOLEMEE (Claude) – Composition mathématique – traduit par Halma, notes de Delambre – Tome 1, 1813, tome 2, 1816.
STÖFFLER (Jean) – Traité de la composition et fabrique de l'Astrolabe, et de son usage – Edition 1560.
AUJAC (Germaine) – La sphère : instrument au service de la découverte du monde – Ed. Paradigme 1993.
AUJAC (Germaine) – La géographie dans le monde antique – Que sais-je ? – P.U.F.
BAUDET (Jean) – De l'outil à la machine – Histoire des techniques jusqu'en 1800 – Vuibert 2003
Catalogue J. Kugel – "Sphères" – 2002
COCCO (Gisèle) – La dioptre à travers les traités de l'astrolabe plan – dans Autour de la Dioptre d'Héron d'Alexandrie – Publications de l'Université de Saint-Étienne – 2000.
CUNLIFFE (Barry) – Pythéas le grec découvre l'Europe du Nord - Editions Autrement 2003.
DAUMAS (Maurice) – Les instruments scientifiques au XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles – Réédition Gabay 2003.
DJEBBAR (Ahmed) – Une histoire de la science arabe – Points Seuil 2001.
FREMONTIER-MURPHY – Les instruments de mathématiques XVIe – XVIIIe siècle – Musée du Louvre – Seuil 2002
HEBERT (Elisabeth) – Les instruments scientifiques à travers l'histoire – Ellipses 2004.
HIGTON (Hester) – Sundials – An illustrated history of portable dials – Philip Wilson Publishers – Londres 2001.
HOLLANDER (Raymond D') – L'astrolabe. Histoire, théorie et pratique – Institut Océanographique 1999.
IREM Paris-Nord – L'astrolabe au carrefour des savoirs – http://www-irem.univ-paris13.fr/
LAFFITTE (Roland) – Héritages arabes – Des noms arabes pour les étoiles – Librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner Paris 2001
MEDEROS MARTIN (Carlos) – Le rôle des instruments dans l'enseignement de l'histoire des sciences – dans 4000 ans d'histoire des mathématiques – IREM de Rennes – Octobre 2002
MICHEL (Henri) – Traité de l'astrolabe – Paris 1976.
RASHED (Roshdi), sous la direction de – Histoire des sciences arabes – tome 1 : Astronomie, théorique et appliquée – Seuil 1997.
ROSSI (Paolo) – La naissance de la science moderne en Europe – Seuil 1999.
VASSARD (Christian) – L'astrolabe – dans Actes de la 7e Université d'été interdisciplinaire sur l'histoire des mathématiques – Nantes 1997.
Jean de SACROBOSCO (XIIIe siècle)
La Sphère de Sacrobosco
Edition en français de 1607.
Oronce FINE (1494-1555)
Des horloges et quadrants solaires livres 3 et 4
Edition de Venise de 1670. Traduction de l’italien de Marie-Agnès Pédaillé.
Johann Stöffler (1452-1531) – Jacob Köbel
Elucadio Fabricae ususque astrolabii relié avec Astrolabii declaratio
Edition de Cologne 1594.
Jean de Séville dit le Soucy (m. vers 1600)
Le compost manuel, calendrier et almanach perpétuel
A Rouen 1595.
Extrait et images.
Institution astronomique de l'usage des globes et sphères
Edition en français – Amsterdam 1642.
Charles de BOVELLES (1479-1567)
La géométrie pratique
Edition de 1566.
Extraits et images.
Del modo di misurare
Edition de Venise 1564.
Jean CHARDIN (1643-1713)
Voyages du chevalier Chardin en Perse, et autres lieux de l'Orient
▪ Morrison, James E., The Astrolabe, Janus (2007)This book, by the author of this web site, is not about astrolabes, but is about the astrolabe. That is, it is not about specific instruments, but covers the principles of all types of astrolabes and astrolabe related instruments. Included is the description, history, use and design of planispheric astrolabes, universal astrolabes, astrolabe related quadrants and associated instruments. Click on the link for a more complete description.
▪ North, J. D., 'The Astrolabe', Scientific American, 230:1, 96-106 (January, 1974)This article is the most easily available general reference on astrolabes. It includes a brief history, an overview of the projection used in astrolabe design and some pictures of classical instruments. It is highly recommended as a good, brief, general introduction. John North was one of the most distinguished scholars of medieval astronomy active today and all of his publications are highly recommended. Several are cited below. Of particular interest is the three volume, Richard of Wallingford, Clarendon Press, Oxford, (1976), which is spectacularly complete.
▪ Webster, Roderick and Marjorie, Western Astrolabes, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, 1998. ISBN 1-891220-01-2 This wonderful book documents the European astrolabes in the Adler collection in clear, concise terms. It is an absolutely required element of all astrolabe libraries. See also the Webster astrolabe reproduction below. The late Roderick S. Webster with his wife Marjorie (Madge to her friends and colleagues) were Curators Emeritii of the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum collection of historic scientific instruments. As a team, the Websters were among the world's leading authorities on astrolabes and early scientific instruments. As individuals, the Websters are among the finest people I have ever met and I am honored to call them friends. Madge Webster continues her invaluable contributions to the world of historical scientific instruments in general and the Adler in particular. Their unique knowledge and love of astrolabes is reflected in their book.
▪ Evans, James, The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy, Oxford University Press (1998).Perhaps the most readable book on ancient astronomy ever published and it has a considerable amount of material on astrolabes.
▪ The Planispheric Astrolabe, National Maritime Museum, 1976. This booklet from the Old Royal Observatory of the National Maritime Museum at Greenwich, England is a good source on how to use a classic astrolabe. It also contains basic notes on the astrolabe projection and pictures of some outstanding classical instruments. It may not be available in libraries so you may have to go to Greenwich to get one. It is worth the trip. I know it is also sold at the Musuem of the History of Science, Oxford.
▪ Turner, Anthony J., The Time Museum: Time Measuring Instruments. Part 1. Astrolabes/Astrolabe Related Instruments, The Time Museum, Rockford, Il, 1985. ISBN 0-912947-02-0. The stated purpose of this book is to record the astrolabes in the collection of the Time Museum but it is far, far more. It is a wonderful book, beautifully presented and has by far the best historical section of any modern reference. Very highly recommended but not inexpensive. If you buy only one book on astrolabes, this should be the one. The Time Museum has closed, but this book is available from other sources. Another of Turner's books, Early Scientific Instruments, is a wonderful source on early instruments such as astrolabes, sundials, armillary spheres, globes, navigation and surveying instruments. It is probably available from many sources. An excellent source is Celestaire, 416 S. Pershing, Wichita, KS 67218, (800) 727-9785. Celestair sells celestial navigation instruments and books on navigation and its history.
▪ Gunther, Robert T., Astrolabes of the World. ISBN 0-87556-604-9 (Saifer). originally published by University Press, Oxford (1932).This two volume work was the first serious attempt to collect astrolabe information into a single source. It was written when Mr. Gunther was curator of the Museum of the History of Science at Oxford. It is a wonderful reference but also, as a seminal work, has errors. It is available at many large libraries or by inter-library loan.
▪ Gibbs, Sharon with Saliba, George, Planispheric Astrolabes from the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution Press, City of Washington (1984).The book is no longer in print but it might be found through a library. It contains an excellent overview of astrolabe styles from various times and locations along with pictures and descriptions of the astrolabes owned by the Smithsonian. The complete book can be downloaded from: http://www.sil.si.edu/SmithsonianContributions/HistoryTechnology/pdf_hi/SSHT-0045.pdf (76 Mb).
▪ Michel, Henri, Traité de L'Astrolabe, Librarie Alain Brieux, 48, Rue Jacob, 75006 Paris (1976).This book was the only complete reference on the science of the astrolabe for many years after its original publication in 1947, and reprinting in 1976, but has been superceded by later, more complete works. It is no longer in print and it is in French but, if you read French, it is worth the trouble to find a copy. Note also that it was privately published and there are not many copies around. Michel was a Belgian engineer who studied and collected astrolabes for many years and published many articles in addition to this book on their technical aspects. The book covers not only planispheric astrolabes but also all the other types. The publisher operated a shop in Paris that sells the instruments. A complete English translation can be made available to serious students by contacting James E. Morrison, firstname.lastname@example.org.
▪ Lamprey, John, Hartmann's Practika and Stoeffler's Elucidatio (with Alessandro Gunella)John Lamprey's translations of Georg Hartmann's previously unpublished 16th century technical manual for sundials and astrolabes (ISBN 1-931947-00-7) and Johannes Stoeffler's 1553, Elucidatio frabricae ususque astrolabii (ISBN 978-1-4243-3502-2, ISBN 978-1-4243-4132-0) brings the world of the Rennaissance astrolabist to the modern reader, whether student, scholar or interested enthusiast. Stoeffler's astrolabe treatise is a classic, and was the primary source of information on the design and use of astrolabes in the Renaissance. Hartmann's Practika contains heretofore unpublished details on how to design several instruments, including astrolabes with variations, and sundials using classic techniques. Both books are available from Classical Science Press.
▪ King, David A., In Synchrony with the Heavens. Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Medieval Islamic Civilization. Volume Two: Instruments of Mass Calculation, Brill (2005).This monumental work (1066 pp.) documents a lifetime of historical research by the world's most eminent scholar of Islamic astronomy, including extensive material on Islamic astrolabes and quadrants. It is a fundamental reference for scholars and assumes the reader has extensive background in astronomy and is familiar with pre-telescopic instruments and the history of Islamic astronomy. That being said, it is also a valuable addition to any history of astronomy library and can be read and enjoyed by anyone with interest in the subject. It has the most complete astrolabe bibliography ever compiled. There is a certain amount of frustration associated with this book because it will point you down so many interesting paths you will want to learn more, and more, and more... Professor King has compiled a catalog of all known astrolabes. The Table of Contents is at: http://web.uni-frankfurt.de/fb13/ign/instrument-catalogue-TOC.html . For a spectacular example of the role astrolabes can play in cutting-edge historical research, see http://web.uni-frankfurt.de/fb13/ign/Code.htm .
▪ Charette, François, Mathematical Instrumentation in Fourteenth-Century Egypt and Syria. The Illustrated Treatise of Najm al-Din al-Misri, Brill, Leiden (2003).The title of this book may be a bit putoffish for the layman, and it is intended for the professional historian, but that should not deter you from finding a copy. I was particularly impressed by the author's clarity of expression and the background material included is fascinating.
▪ Neugebauer, Otto A., A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy, Springer-Verlag (1975) (3 vols), Astronomy and History: Selected Essays, Springer-Verlag (1983) and The Exact Sciences in Antiquity, Dover (1969).These highly respected works are, collectively, a huge source of authoritative information on ancient astronomy and mathematics. They are written at a very high level but are required references for serious study. Of particular interest is 'The Early History of the Astrolabe' from the 'Essays' reference above.
▪ King, Henry C., Geared to the Stars, University of Toronto Press, 1978. This formidable book is really about astronomical machines including clocks, orrerys and planetarium instruments. It is a wonderful book and has some very interesting examples of astrolabe clock faces and geared astrolabes. It is a book that will be captivating to anyone with an interest in the history of astronomy. I bought a copy at a planetarium bookstore but it should be available from libraries. I often have to take advantage of interlibrary loan services to find books on such obscure subjects. Professor King is also the author of the classic, History of the Telescope.
▪ Schroeder, Wolfgang, Practical Astronomy. A New Approach to an Old Science, London, 1956. This small book should be available from libraries. It is a very interesting approach to making mathematical astronomy understandable to the non-technical person. It contains descriptions of how to make several old astronomical instruments and has a brief section on astrolabes.
▪ Chaucer, Geoffrey, A Treatise on the Astrolabe, addressed to his son, Lowys, A.D. 1391, edited by Walter Skeat, London, 1872.This is the oldest known technical manual in the English language (subject to stylistic differences that have occurred over the last 600 years). Written in about 1391 for 10 year old "little Lowys" who was either his son or the son of a friend, it was later subtitled, "Bread and Milk for Children" by a scribe with a sense of humor. The content is heavy going for an informed adult, much less a child. It is not an easy 'read' but it should be studied by any serious student. It is among the oldest references available, is a complete description of astrolabes as they were made and used in the 14th century and it gives insight into the astrolabe's astronomical and astrological uses. Note that it is not possible to learn much from this treatise without a solid foundation in medieval cosmology. An invaluable companion to complete understanding of this work isChaucer's Universe by John D. North, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1988. Another companion is, Horoscopes and History, also by John D. North which explains, among other things, the various astrological house systems used in the Middle Ages. The complete Middle English text of the treatise is available on the web as noted above. The Skeat edition cited is available in many libraries.
▪ van Cleempoel, Koenraad, Astrolabes at Greenwich, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005.This beautifully presented volume describes the astrolabes in the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich. It is a very thorough and scholarly work. I was impressed by the scholarship and clarity of the instrument descriptions and, in particular, by the Islamic instrument coverage by François Charette.
▪ Pingree, David, Eastern Astrolabes, Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum, Chicago, 2009.A catalog of the Islamic astrolabes in the Adler collection.
▪ The Personal Astroabe, Janus, , 18 Kingsbridge Road, Rehoboth Beach, DE 19971 USAThe Personal Astrolabe is a computer created astrolabe recreation. Follow the link for a detailed description. It is valuable as an educational aid for positional astronomy or just to learn about astrolabes. It is also an inexpensive supplement to more expensive reproductions.
▪ Webster, Roderick S., The Astrolabe. Some notes on its history, construction and use, Paul R. MacAlister, Lake Bluff, Il (1974). The offering consists of a cardboard astrolabe kit done in the classical style and a pretty good booklet on astrolabe theory and use. The resulting instrument is a good reproduction of a European Renaissance astrolabe. It is probably available from several sources. The kit is available through the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum Shop, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605.
▪ Saunders & Cooke, P.O. Box 1459, Portsmouth, NH, 03802-1459, USA, (603) 431-0333 (Voice and Fax) (http://www.saundersandcooke.com)Saunders & Cooke offered very nice scientific instrument reproductions including a 10 3/4" (26 cm) planispheric astrolabe, a Rojas universal astrolabe, an astrolabum (sic) catholicum in the style of Gemma Frisius with a planispheric astrolabe on one side and a saphaea arzachaelis universal astrolabe on the back and an astrolabe quadrant. They also offered a universal ring dial, an octant and reproductions of 18th century stick barometers. While not inexpensive, these reproductions were priced very reasonably. I have three of the instruments (the planispheric astrolabe, the astrolabe quadrant and the Astrolabum Catholicum) and they are nicely executed. They are heirloom quality. It appears that Saunders and Cooke have gone out of business. This link is kept here in hopes they will resume operations.
▪ Martin Brunhold, Sonnenweg 13, CH-5646 Abtwil, Aargau/Switzerland, email@example.com,Martin Brunhold makes lovely astrolabe reproductions. I have seen some of them and they are spectacular, but not inexpensive. You will want to see his web site at www.astrolabe.ch to appreciate his craftsmanship.
▪ Norman Greene, 1215 4th St., Berkeley, CA, 94710, (510) 524-1109,Norman Greene offers a wide range of pewter instruments including astrolabes in 1", 2 3/4", 3" and 4" sizes, sundials, armillary spheres and other instruments. The four inch astrolabe is available with interchangeable plates or a fixed plate. I have seen the small ones, which are too small to be considered a working instrument, but include all of the elements of a classic astrolabe. I have not seen the larger sizes or the other instruments, but the pictures in the literature are quite compelling. Write Mr. Greene for prices and availability. Some of the instruments are shown at http://www.puzzlering.net/astrolabe.html. These astrolabes were featured in a segment of "How Things Work" on TV.
▪ Brigitte ALIX, 2 Impasse Andromaque, 78180 Montigny le bretonneux, France Brigitte Alix (http://www.astrolabes.fr/index.html) offers several astrolabes and related devices. I have not seen any of her instruments in person, but I have been told they are beautifully done. Her web site is only in French, but there are enough pictures to show the quality and range of the offerings.
▪ Classic Science (www.classicscience.co.uk) is a new company in England offering a large (10 inch) engraved brass astrolabe, two armillary spheres and a brass telescope. I have not personally seen their instruments, but the web site pictures are quite compelling.
▪ Saunders, Harold N., The Astrolabe, Devon, 1971. Available with a plastic astrolabe from Micro Instruments (Oxford) Ltd., 7, Little Clarendon Street, Oxford, OX1 2HP, England. This is also a working astrolabe. It is a small plastic astrolabe designed for the latitude of London with two booklets on theory and use. I do not know if it is still available and would appreciate any information. Saunders is also the author of All the Astrolabes, Senecio Publishing, Oxford, England, which is very poorly organized and difficult to read but has some excellent technical material that is not otherwise easy to find.
▪ "The Astrolabe", Glen Ellen Scientific, P.O. Box 999, Glen Ellen, CA 95442This astrolabe reproduction is a cardboard kit with a very sparse booklet. I do not know if it is still available.
▪ "The Astrolabe", National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, UK.This kit from the National Maritime museum is for a single plate astrolabe in the European classic style with the rete printed on clear plastic. I bought the kit on a trip to Greenwich but never actually assembled it. Others have reported that it results in a nice instrument. It is available from the Old Royal Observatory in Greenwich.
▪ The Franklin Mint offered a small brass astrolabe a few years ago. An alert reader sent in a description of the Franklin Mint astrolabe. It was described as about 4 inches (10 cm) in diameter and sits in a wood base. The price is about $100 US. It seems to have about 15 stars on the rete. The small size would make it rather difficult to use, but it looks pretty in the picture.
▪ Sphéres, l'art des mécaniques célestes
▪ Auteur : Collectif
Editeur : Galerie Kugel
Traité des horloges marines (10012)
par F. Berthoud
C. Eagleton, Monks, Manuscripts, and Sundials: The Navicula in Medieval England(Leiden, Brill, 2010).